Aorta | Aortic valve regurgitation | Aortic valve stenosis | Atria | Left ventricle | Mitral valve regurgitation | Mitral valve stenosis | Pulmonary valve regurgitation | Pulmonary valve stenosis | Right ventricle | Tricuspid valve regurgitation | Tricuspid valve stenosis |


Aorta
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for both genders

Reference values adapted from

1. Evangelista, Arturo; Flachskampf, Frank A.; Erbel, Raimund; Antonini-Canterin, Francesco; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Rocchi, Guido et al. (2010): Echocardiography in aortic diseases: EAE recommendations for clinical practice. In European journal of echocardiography : the journal of the Working Group on Echocardiography of the European Society of Cardiology 11 (8), pp. 645–658. DOI: 10.1093/ejechocard/jeq056. –>Pubmed-Link
2. Hiratzka, L. F. et al. 2010 ACCF/AHA/AATS/ACR/ASA/SCA/SCAI/SIR/STS/SVM Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients With Thoracic Aortic Disease A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American College of Radiology, American Stroke Association, Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Interventional Radiology, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and Society for Vascular Medicine. Circulation 121, e266–e369 (2010). –>Pubmed-Link
3. Armstrong, W., Ryan, T. & Feigenbaum, H. Feigenbaum’s echocardiography. (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2010).
4. Roman, M. J., Devereux, R. B., Kramer-Fox, R. & O’Loughlin, J. Two-dimensional echocardiographic aortic root dimensions in normal children and adults. Am. J. Cardiol. 64, 507–512 (1989). –> Pubmed-Link
5. Erbel, R.; Alfonso, F.; Boileau, C.; Dirsch, O.; Eber, B.; Haverich, A. et al. (2001): Diagnosis and management of aortic dissection. In European heart journal 22 (18), pp. 1642–1681. DOI: 10.1053/euhj.2001.2782. –>Pubmed-Link
 


Aortic valve regurgitation
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for both genders

Reference values adapted from

1. Zoghbi, William A.; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Foster, Elyse; Grayburn, Paul A.; Kraft, Carol D.; Levine, Robert A. et al. (2003): Recommendations for evaluation of the severity of native valvular regurgitation with two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 16 (7), pp. 777–802. DOI: 10.1016/S0894-7317(03)00335-3. –>Pubmed-Link
2. Zoghbi, William A.; Adams, David; Bonow, Robert O.; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Foster, Elyse; Grayburn, Paul A. et al. (2017): Recommendations for Noninvasive Evaluation of Native Valvular Regurgitation. A Report from the American Society of Echocardiography Developed in Collaboration with the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 30 (4), pp. 303–371. DOI: 10.1016/j.echo.2017.01.007. –>Pubmed-Link


Aortic valve stenosis
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for both genders

Reference values adapted from

1. Baumgartner, Helmut; Hung, Judy; Bermejo, Javier; Chambers, John B.; Evangelista, Arturo; Griffin, Brian P. et al. (2009): Echocardiographic assessment of valve stenosis: EAE/ASE recommendations for clinical practice. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 22 (1), 1-23; quiz 101-2. DOI: 10.1016/j.echo.2008.11.029. –>Pubmed-Link
2. Baumgartner, Helmut; Hung, Judy; Bermejo, Javier; Chambers, John B.; Evangelista, Arturo; Griffin, Brian P. et al. (2009): Echocardiographic assessment of valve stenosis: EAE/ASE recommendations for clinical practice. In European journal of echocardiography : the journal of the Working Group on Echocardiography of the European Society of Cardiology 10 (1), pp. 1–25. DOI: 10.1093/ejechocard/jen303. –>Pubmed-Link
3. Vahanian, Alec; Alfieri, Ottavio; Andreotti, Felicita; Antunes, Manuel J.; Barón-Esquivias, Gonzalo; Baumgartner, Helmut et al. (2012): Guidelines on the management of valvular heart disease (version 2012). In European heart journal 33 (19), pp. 2451–2496. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehs109. –>Pubmed-Link
4. Baumgartner, Helmut; Hung, Judy; Bermejo, Javier; Chambers, John B.; Edvardsen, Thor; Goldstein, Steven et al. (2017): Recommendations on the Echocardiographic Assessment of Aortic Valve Stenosis. A Focused Update from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging and the American Society of Echocardiography. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 30 (4), pp. 372–392. DOI: 10.1016/j.echo.2017.02.009. –>Pubmed-Link


Atria
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for both genders

Reference values adapted from

1.Lang, Roberto M.; Bierig, Michelle; Devereux, Richard B.; Flachskampf, Frank A.; Foster, Elyse; Pellikka, Patricia A. et al. (2006): Recommendations for chamber quantification. In European journal of echocardiography : the journal of the Working Group on Echocardiography of the European Society of Cardiology 7 (2), pp. 79–108. DOI: 10.1016/j.euje.2005.12.014. –>Pubmed-Link
2. Lang, Roberto M.; Bierig, Michelle; Devereux, Richard B.; Flachskampf, Frank A.; Foster, Elyse; Pellikka, Patricia A. et al. (2005): Recommendations for chamber quantification: a report from the American Society of Echocardiography's Guidelines and Standards Committee and the Chamber Quantification Writing Group, developed in conjunction with the European Association of Echocardiography, a branch of the European Society of Cardiology. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 18 (12), pp. 1440–1463. DOI: 10.1016/j.echo.2005.10.005. –>Pubmed-Link
3. Lang, Roberto M.; Badano, Luigi P.; Mor-Avi, Victor; Afilalo, Jonathan; Armstrong, Anderson; Ernande, Laura et al. (2015): Recommendations for cardiac chamber quantification by echocardiography in adults: an update from the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 28 (1), 1-39.e14. DOI: 10.1016/j.echo.2014.10.003. –>Pubmed-Link
4. Lang, Roberto M.; Badano, Luigi P.; Mor-Avi, Victor; Afilalo, Jonathan; Armstrong, Anderson; Ernande, Laura et al. (2015): Recommendations for cardiac chamber quantification by echocardiography in adults: an update from the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. In European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging 16 (3), pp. 233–270. DOI: 10.1093/ehjci/jev014. –>Pubmed-Link


Left ventricle
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Reference values adapted from

1.Lang, Roberto M.; Bierig, Michelle; Devereux, Richard B.; Flachskampf, Frank A.; Foster, Elyse; Pellikka, Patricia A. et al. (2006): Recommendations for chamber quantification. In European journal of echocardiography : the journal of the Working Group on Echocardiography of the European Society of Cardiology 7 (2), pp. 79–108. DOI: 10.1016/j.euje.2005.12.014. –>Pubmed-Link
2. Lang, Roberto M.; Bierig, Michelle; Devereux, Richard B.; Flachskampf, Frank A.; Foster, Elyse; Pellikka, Patricia A. et al. (2005): Recommendations for chamber quantification: a report from the American Society of Echocardiography's Guidelines and Standards Committee and the Chamber Quantification Writing Group, developed in conjunction with the European Association of Echocardiography, a branch of the European Society of Cardiology. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 18 (12), pp. 1440–1463. DOI: 10.1016/j.echo.2005.10.005. –>Pubmed-Link
3. Lang, Roberto M.; Badano, Luigi P.; Mor-Avi, Victor; Afilalo, Jonathan; Armstrong, Anderson; Ernande, Laura et al. (2015): Recommendations for cardiac chamber quantification by echocardiography in adults: an update from the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 28 (1), 1-39.e14. DOI: 10.1016/j.echo.2014.10.003. –>Pubmed-Link
4. Lang, Roberto M.; Badano, Luigi P.; Mor-Avi, Victor; Afilalo, Jonathan; Armstrong, Anderson; Ernande, Laura et al. (2015): Recommendations for cardiac chamber quantification by echocardiography in adults: an update from the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. In European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging 16 (3), pp. 233–270. DOI: 10.1093/ehjci/jev014. –>Pubmed-Link


Mitral valve regurgitation
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for both genders

Reference values adapted from

1. Zoghbi, William A.; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Foster, Elyse; Grayburn, Paul A.; Kraft, Carol D.; Levine, Robert A. et al. (2003): Recommendations for evaluation of the severity of native valvular regurgitation with two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 16 (7), pp. 777–802. DOI: 10.1016/S0894-7317(03)00335-3. –>Pubmed-Link
2. Zoghbi, William A.; Adams, David; Bonow, Robert O.; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Foster, Elyse; Grayburn, Paul A. et al. (2017): Recommendations for Noninvasive Evaluation of Native Valvular Regurgitation. A Report from the American Society of Echocardiography Developed in Collaboration with the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 30 (4), pp. 303–371. DOI: 10.1016/j.echo.2017.01.007. –>Pubmed-Link


Mitral valve stenosis
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for both genders

Reference values adapted from

1. Baumgartner, Helmut; Hung, Judy; Bermejo, Javier; Chambers, John B.; Evangelista, Arturo; Griffin, Brian P. et al. (2009): Echocardiographic assessment of valve stenosis: EAE/ASE recommendations for clinical practice. In European journal of echocardiography : the journal of the Working Group on Echocardiography of the European Society of Cardiology 10 (1), pp. 1–25. DOI: 10.1093/ejechocard/jen303. –>Pubmed-Link
2. Baumgartner, Helmut; Hung, Judy; Bermejo, Javier; Chambers, John B.; Evangelista, Arturo; Griffin, Brian P. et al. (2009): Echocardiographic assessment of valve stenosis: EAE/ASE recommendations for clinical practice. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 22 (1), 1-23; quiz 101-2. DOI: 10.1016/j.echo.2008.11.029. –>Pubmed-Link
3. Vahanian, Alec; Alfieri, Ottavio; Andreotti, Felicita; Antunes, Manuel J.; Barón-Esquivias, Gonzalo; Baumgartner, Helmut et al. (2012): Guidelines on the management of valvular heart disease (version 2012). In European heart journal 33 (19), pp. 2451–2496. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehs109.–>Pubmed-Link



Pulmonary valve regurgitation
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for both genders

Reference values adapted from

1. Zoghbi, William A.; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Foster, Elyse; Grayburn, Paul A.; Kraft, Carol D.; Levine, Robert A. et al. (2003): Recommendations for evaluation of the severity of native valvular regurgitation with two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 16 (7), pp. 777–802. DOI: 10.1016/S0894-7317(03)00335-3. –>Pubmed-Link
2. Zoghbi, William A.; Adams, David; Bonow, Robert O.; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Foster, Elyse; Grayburn, Paul A. et al. (2017): Recommendations for Noninvasive Evaluation of Native Valvular Regurgitation. A Report from the American Society of Echocardiography Developed in Collaboration with the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 30 (4), pp. 303–371. DOI: 10.1016/j.echo.2017.01.007. –>Pubmed-Link
3. Lancellotti, Patrizio; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Hagendorff, Andreas; Moura, Luis; Popescu, Bogdan A.; Agricola, Eustachio et al. (2010): European Association of Echocardiography recommendations for the assessment of valvular regurgitation. Part 1: aortic and pulmonary regurgitation (native valve disease). In European journal of echocardiography : the journal of the Working Group on Echocardiography of the European Society of Cardiology 11 (3), pp. 223–244. DOI: 10.1093/ejechocard/jeq030. –>Pubmed-Link



Pulmonary valve stenosis
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for both genders

Reference values adapted from

1. Baumgartner, Helmut; Hung, Judy; Bermejo, Javier; Chambers, John B.; Evangelista, Arturo; Griffin, Brian P. et al. (2009): Echocardiographic assessment of valve stenosis: EAE/ASE recommendations for clinical practice. In European journal of echocardiography : the journal of the Working Group on Echocardiography of the European Society of Cardiology 10 (1), pp. 1–25. DOI: 10.1093/ejechocard/jen303. –>Pubmed-Link
2. Baumgartner, Helmut; Hung, Judy; Bermejo, Javier; Chambers, John B.; Evangelista, Arturo; Griffin, Brian P. et al. (2009): Echocardiographic assessment of valve stenosis: EAE/ASE recommendations for clinical practice. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 22 (1), 1-23; quiz 101-2. DOI: 10.1016/j.echo.2008.11.029. –>Pubmed-Link


Right ventricle
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Reference values adapted from

1. Rudski, Lawrence G.; Lai, Wyman W.; Afilalo, Jonathan; Hua, Lanqi; Handschumacher, Mark D.; Chandrasekaran, Krishnaswamy et al. (2010): Guidelines for the echocardiographic assessment of the right heart in adults: a report from the American Society of Echocardiography endorsed by the European Association of Echocardiography, a registered branch of the European Society of Cardiology, and the Canadian Society of Echocardiography. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 23 (7), 685-713; quiz 786-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.echo.2010.05.010. –>Pubmed-Link
2.Lang, Roberto M.; Bierig, Michelle; Devereux, Richard B.; Flachskampf, Frank A.; Foster, Elyse; Pellikka, Patricia A. et al. (2006): Recommendations for chamber quantification. In European journal of echocardiography : the journal of the Working Group on Echocardiography of the European Society of Cardiology 7 (2), pp. 79–108. DOI: 10.1016/j.euje.2005.12.014. –>Pubmed-Link
3. Lang, Roberto M.; Bierig, Michelle; Devereux, Richard B.; Flachskampf, Frank A.; Foster, Elyse; Pellikka, Patricia A. et al. (2005): Recommendations for chamber quantification: a report from the American Society of Echocardiography's Guidelines and Standards Committee and the Chamber Quantification Writing Group, developed in conjunction with the European Association of Echocardiography, a branch of the European Society of Cardiology. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 18 (12), pp. 1440–1463. DOI: 10.1016/j.echo.2005.10.005. –>Pubmed-Link
4. Lang, Roberto M.; Badano, Luigi P.; Mor-Avi, Victor; Afilalo, Jonathan; Armstrong, Anderson; Ernande, Laura et al. (2015): Recommendations for cardiac chamber quantification by echocardiography in adults: an update from the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 28 (1), 1-39.e14. DOI: 10.1016/j.echo.2014.10.003. –>Pubmed-Link
5. Lang, Roberto M.; Badano, Luigi P.; Mor-Avi, Victor; Afilalo, Jonathan; Armstrong, Anderson; Ernande, Laura et al. (2015): Recommendations for cardiac chamber quantification by echocardiography in adults: an update from the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. In European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging 16 (3), pp. 233–270. DOI: 10.1093/ehjci/jev014. –>Pubmed-Link


Tricuspid valve stenosis
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for both genders

Reference values adapted from

1. Baumgartner, Helmut; Hung, Judy; Bermejo, Javier; Chambers, John B.; Evangelista, Arturo; Griffin, Brian P. et al. (2009): Echocardiographic assessment of valve stenosis: EAE/ASE recommendations for clinical practice. In European journal of echocardiography : the journal of the Working Group on Echocardiography of the European Society of Cardiology 10 (1), pp. 1–25. DOI: 10.1093/ejechocard/jen303. –>Pubmed-Link
2. Baumgartner, Helmut; Hung, Judy; Bermejo, Javier; Chambers, John B.; Evangelista, Arturo; Griffin, Brian P. et al. (2009): Echocardiographic assessment of valve stenosis: EAE/ASE recommendations for clinical practice. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 22 (1), 1-23; quiz 101-2. DOI: 10.1016/j.echo.2008.11.029. –>Pubmed-Link


Tricuspid valve regurgitation
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for both genders
Reference values adapted from

1. Zoghbi, William A.; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Foster, Elyse; Grayburn, Paul A.; Kraft, Carol D.; Levine, Robert A. et al. (2003): Recommendations for evaluation of the severity of native valvular regurgitation with two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 16 (7), pp. 777–802. DOI: 10.1016/S0894-7317(03)00335-3. –>Pubmed-Link
2. Zoghbi, William A.; Adams, David; Bonow, Robert O.; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Foster, Elyse; Grayburn, Paul A. et al. (2017): Recommendations for Noninvasive Evaluation of Native Valvular Regurgitation. A Report from the American Society of Echocardiography Developed in Collaboration with the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 30 (4), pp. 303–371. DOI: 10.1016/j.echo.2017.01.007. –>Pubmed-Link
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